COVID-19: Expert Reviews of Relevant and Emerging Literature2021-04-28T15:30:24-04:00

This report from the CDC  suggest that in the United States, persons with underlying health conditions or other recognized risk factors for severe outcomes from respiratory infections appear to be at a higher risk for severe disease from COVID-19 than are persons without these conditions.

In this report, advice is given about types of real-time information to present to keep people informed of the effects of COVID-19.

Pennsylvania’s first-ever chief data officer, David Partsch, offered guidance about how to communicate important evidence-based information during the COVID-19 pandemic. A single online location for information is important, and Partsch suggests including data sets, visualizations, reports, and dashboards to keep people informed about the outbreak. Providing information in real-time is important, both for internal communications as well as public communications.

Published on  :  | By Maria Brann

Review: How to fight an infodemic

This article discusses WHO’s newly launched platform to correct misinformation about COVID-19.

This study showed that while early infections in Wuhan, China could be linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, after January 1, 2020, few infections could – meaning that human-to-human transmission was occurring.

Researchers collected information on the first 425 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Data included demographic characteristics, exposure history, and illness timelines.

This forthcoming medical journal article, authored by a group of acute care surgeons with diverse expertise in disaster management and public health, outlines a tiered approach to surgical department planning, including deployment of Acute Care Surgeons (ACS), utilization of infrastructure and transfers, triage principles, and deployment of faculty, resident, and advanced care practitioners.

The article notes that pandemic response differs significantly from other typical mass casualty plans because a pandemic presents a prolonged course of resource and personal exhaustion, rather than an acute event followed by an acute and relatively short response.

Part 1 of this panel discussion with public health law experts explores key legal issues related to triage and rationing of scarce medical resources, including supplies and personnel, during a public health emergency.

Key discussion points include:

This Joint Statement of the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NAPB) and Federation of State Medical Boards (FASB) notes that physicians, pharmacists, pharmacies and hospitals have an ethical duty to put the needs of patients first, and this includes observing strict prescribing guidelines of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin.

Published on  :  | By Ross Silverman

Review: Why there is no national lockdown

This article discusses how, unlike China and Italy, United States law requires that states be responsible for most actions taken to address outbreaks.

This JAMA Health Forum outlines the need to protect health care workers against COVID-19 and outlines advice for future pandemic response.

On March 5, the union National Nurses United (NNU) reported that in a national survey of more than 6500 nurses, only 30% said that their health care organization had sufficient inventory of PPE for responding to a surge event and 44% of the nurses said their employer had provided them with the necessary information about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and how to respond.

This Annals of Internal Medicine case report discusses the risks and outcomes of health care workers caring for a patient with severe pneumonia prior to the patient’s COVID-19 diagnosis being known.

Estimating the case fatality rate (CFR) is a high priority in response to COVID-19 pandemic. This article details issues with interpreting the CFR during the middle of outbreak and cautions against drawing causal inferences from observational data.

To date, there appear to be wide variations in the CFR of COVID-19 among countries. The current CFR in Korea is 1.3% (120 deaths out of 9,037 confirmed cases), as of March 25, 2020,2 while the CFRs are 9.5% in Italy, 7.9% in Iran, 6.6% in Spain, and 4.0% in China.

This study found that poor sleep quality and high working pressure were positively associated with high risks of COVID-19 among a sample of health care workers from a single center in Wuhan, China.

Risk factors in the susceptibility for COVID-19, and infection patterns among HCWs have largely remained unknown.

This was a retrospective analysis of demographics, lifestyles, and contact status with infected subjects among 118 HCWs  from a single-center. Follow-up duration was from Dec 25, 2019, to Feb 15, 2020.

The authors report:

12 HCWs were COVID-19 positive (10.2%).

This study surveyed adults’ behavior in the UK during a period of stringent physical distancing (“lockdown”) and compared the results to previously collected data. They found a large reduction in daily contacts particularly outside the home, resulting in a marked reduction in the estimated reproduction number from 2.6 to 0.62 (95% bootstrapped confidence interval [CI] 0.37 – 0.89).

This study proposes an artificial intelligence (AI) model to help hospitals and medical facilities decide who needs to get attention first, who has higher priority to be hospitalized, triage patients when the system is overwhelmed by overcrowding, and eliminate delays in providing the necessary care.

The authors developed a predictive model based on AI and Machine Learning algorithms to determine the health risk and predict the mortality risk of patients with COVID-19.

Data were from 117,000 patients world-wide with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19.

This study provides data on clusters, and argues that more attention should be paid to clusters as we move to prevention and control of COVID-19. It also stresses that self-isolation may be key.

COVID-19 outbreaks seem to begin in clusters. Researchers collected data on 11 COVID-19 clusters in Qingdao City from Jan 29, 2020 to Feb 23, 2020. These clusters (including 44 cases) accounted for 73% of all confirmed cases. Three cases were infected from exposure to confirmed cases. The average incubation period was 6 days.

This study showed that headaches are a common problem associated with PPE usage in healthcare workers in the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for those with pre-existing headache issues.

COVID-19 is causing many healthcare workers to wear PPE much more than usual. Researchers sought to examine the risk factors associated with the development of headaches associated with this as well as the impact of such headaches on health and work performance. This was a cross‐sectional study of 158 healthcare workers at one tertiary institution working in high‐risk hospital areas.

This study was a meta-analysis of the current scientific literature that finds that hypertension is associated with an up to 2.5-fold higher risk of severe and fatal COVID-19, especially in older individuals.

As amazing as it is, there are enough studies of hypertension and COVID-19 to do a pooled meta-analysis of studies. Researchers searched the literature to identify studies reporting the rate of hypertension in COVID-19 patients with varying outcomes.

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Creative Commons License The literature reviews on this blog were created under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , which allows the reuse and adaptation of the work by noncommercial entities. These rights do not extend to the articles that the authors are reviewing.

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