A developmental, formative evaluation to inform implementation of bidirectional health information exchange in community pharmacies
Hettinger, Katelyn, Purdue University College of Pharmacy; Alissa L. Russ-Jara, PhD, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering, Purdue University; Omolola A. Adeoye-Olatunde, PharmD, MS, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, Center for Health Equity and Innovation, Purdue University College of Pharmacy; Margie E. Snyder, PharmD, MPH, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy
Background/Significance/Rationale: Patient data crucial for pharmacists’ clinical decision making is not readily exchanged between providers and community pharmacies, leading to increased risk of medication errors and missed opportunities for improved patient care. This study aims to (1) conduct a formative usability evaluation of a Health Information Exchange (HIE) prototype with community pharmacists to identify strategies to improve the HIE tool design; and (2) identify expected barriers and facilitators to implementation of the HIE tool in Indiana community pharmacies.
Methods: We recruited pharmacists and pharmacy staff members from community pharmacy locations within the Community Pharmacy Enhanced Services Network (CPESN) of Indiana to complete usability testing. This evaluation utilized a clickable PDF HIE prototype along with a Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) method, including the “think aloud” technique. After usability testing, participants completed the System Usability Scale (SUS) to provide ratings of their satisfaction with the prototype. Pharmacists, pharmacy staff, and patient participants were also recruited for one-hour semi-structured interviews informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to provide insight into the potential barriers and facilitators to implementation of the HIE in community pharmacy practice. Interview transcripts are being analyzed utilizing a hybrid inductive and deductive approach.
Results/Findings: Data collection is complete and analyses are ongoing. Altogether, 23 individuals participated across three community pharmacies. Eight pharmacists and 8 pharmacy staff members completed usability testing and interviews, and 7 patients completed an interview. Preliminary results will be shared at the CTSI Annual Meeting.
Conclusions/Discussion: Initial results reveal opportunities to improve HIE tool usability. E.g. mapping tool function names and placement to pharmacy workflow and providing more vaccine records. Findings will inform the design and implementation toolkit for the fully functional bidirectional HIE tool.
Translational/Human Health Impact: Critical usability findings will be addressed, and an implementation toolkit will be created to inform development and implementation of the fully functional bidirectional HIE tool for use in community pharmacies. Community pharmacist participation in HIE is expected to improve patient care and medication safety through enhanced patient data sharing amongst healthcare professionals.