This study proposes a four-element model as an easy-to-understand and situationally generalizable framework for quickly developing effective personal protective messages during crises.
The authors developed the IDEA model as a message framework for crisis situations focusing on:
In this quasi-experimental study, researchers determined that messages designed according to the IDEA model were significantly more effective at increasing behavioral intentions to engage in appropriate self-protective actions than other types of messages. Effective risk and crisis messaging needs to do more than provide information. Message designers must incorporate elements of internalization and action to be effective. This empowers individuals and leads to the self-efficacy needed to protect oneself.