Duration and determinants of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in individual healthcare workers
In this article, authors present a six-month longitudinal study of healthcare workers. The goal of this study aimed to use SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody measurements to estimate the proportion of a population exposed or infected, and how the data collected could be used to predict future infection. Results demonstrate that anti-spike IgG levels remained relatively detectable after having a positive result in approximately 94% of cases at 180 days. In addition, anti-nucleocapsid IgG levels appeared to peak at day 24 from the first positive PCR test, and then began to trend downward. When evaluating 452 anti-nucleocapsid seropositive healthcare workers over a median of 121 days from their maximum positive IgG titer, the mean estimated antibody half life was 85 days. Increased age, Asian ethnicity, and prior self-reported symptoms were independently associated with a higher maximum anti-nucleocapsid level; and increased age and positive PCR test with symptomatic presentation appear to lead to longer anti-nucleocapsid half-lives. In conclusion, anti-nucleocapsid antibodies wane within months. This appears to occur faster in younger adults and those who are symptomatic. However, anti-spike IgG remains stably detected. Authors encourage further studies to associate the duration of antibody levels and their association with immunity to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.
Recent developments on therapeutics and diagnostics related to COVID-19
In this journal article, authors discuss the lack of clinically approved treatments and therapies related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The review focuses on the latest approaches to diagnose and treat the virus and provide a summary of the most recent progress known on these subjects. The writers discuss antiviral drugs, vaccines, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody treatments, convalescent plasma therapy, and clinical trials currently underway. The article discusses current development and future perspectives based on the current data.
Comparison of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabbing methods
In this article from the Journal of Medical Virology, authors discuss the detection of COVID-19 between healthcare worker-collected nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs when compared to patient performed random, self-collected saliva testing. Of the 562 participants, 28.1% tested positive based on random saliva testing, NP+ OP swabs, or both techniques combined. The detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 was higher in random saliva testing when compared to NP/OP testing. Specific findings are available within the article. Authors suggest that random saliva sampling is a valid alternative for diagnosing COVID-19. Of course, further research is needed to support this claim.
Clinical and ECG characteristics during admission of COVID-19 pneumonia patients
In this article, researchers aim to compare clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia by observing patients who were admitted to the ER for suspected infection and enrolled in this study. COVID-19 was confirmed among this group using positive nasopharyngeal swabbing methods and the primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. In this study, 201 patients received a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia, and those who succumbed to the illness were of an older age, and whom had a complex cardiovascular history including coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and chronic kidney disease. 30-day mortality was 20.9% in the patients who exhibited afib, St-elevation or depression, and QTC interval prolongation on the ECG at admission were at an increased risk for mortality. Those with sinus rhythm and low molecular weight heparin administration related to reduced mortality. Once the study adjusted for age, sex, diabetes, CAD, and MCA admission, sinus rhythm and low molecular weight heparin administration, etc. were found to be independent predictors of increased survival. To conclude, those who present with sinus rhythm at ECG admission with COVID-19 pneumonia, as well as those who receive low molecular weight heparin resulted in a positive outcome.